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Salah

The Salah of the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him)
Hadrat Mughira (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) prayed for so long in the night in standing posture that his feet got swollen up. His companions said to him, "O Prophet of Allah! Why do you exert so much when Allah (The Glorified and the Exalted) has forgiven you all sins." The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) replied, "Should I not be a grateful servant of Allah?" (Bukhari, Muslim)

Adhan and Iqama
Narrated Hadrat Anas (may Allah be pleased with him): The people mentioned the fire and the bell (they suggested those as signals to indicate the starting of prayers), and by that they mentioned the Jews and the Christians. Then Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) was ordered to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer by saying its wordings twice, and for the Iqama (the call for actual standing for the prayers in rows) by saying its wordings once (except for Qad - Qamatis-Salat which should be said twice). (Bukhari)

First Questioning will be about Salah
On the authority of Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said:
The first of his actions for which a servant of Allah (The Glorified and the Exalted) will be held accountable on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayers. If they are in order, then he will have prospered and succeeded; and if they are wanting, then he will have failed and lost. If there is something defective in his obligatory prayers, the Lord (The Glorified and the Exalted) will say: See if My servant has any optional prayers with which may be completed that which was defective in his obligatory prayers. Then the rest of his actions will be judged in like fashion. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, an-Nasai, Ibn Majah and Ahmad). (Hadith Qudsi)

Pray in All Circumstances
Narrated 'Imran bin Husain (may Allah be pleased with him): I had piles, so I asked the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) about the prayer. He said, "Pray while standing and if you can't, pray while sitting and if you cannot do even that, then pray lying on your side." (Bukhari)

Salah Erases Sins
Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "Let anyone tell me; if a stream flows by the house of any person and he baths in it five times a day, whether any dirt will remain on his body." The companions replied that no dirt would remain in such a case. He said, "So is the case with prescribed prayers. Allah forgives men's sins (minor) on their account." (Bukhari, Muslim)

Salah is the Best Deed
Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Masud (may Allah be pleased with him) said that he enquired of the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) what was the best deed in the sight of Allah. The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) replied, "To say prescribed prayers at stated hours." I asked what was the next best. He said, "To be good to parents." I again asked what deed ranked next. He said, "To do Jihad in the way of Allah." Ibn Masud (may Allah be pleased with him) says that if he had gone on asking, the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) would have told him more. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Salah Brings Salvation
Hadrat Abdullah bin Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) said that one day the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) was talking about prescribed prayers and he said, "Whoso is regular in his prayers it will illumine his face, testify to the firmness of his faith and be the cause of his salvation on the Day of Judgement. And whoso neglects the prayers will neither acquire any glow nor staunchness of faith nor any means of salvation and he will join, on the Day of Resurrection, the company of Korah (Qarun), Pharoah, Haman and Ubay bin Khalaf." (Ahmad, Darimy, Baihaqi)

The Merit of Each Salah
Narrated by Hadrat Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "Whoever misses the 'Asr prayer (intentionally) then it is as if he lost his family and property." (Bukhari)

Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "If people only knew the reward of giving the prayer-call or the merit of standing in the first row of the congregational prayers, they would insist on drawing lots for finding a place therein. And if they could know the merit of repairing to the mosque early for noon prayers, they would go there running and if they were to know the blessings of night and early morning prayers, they would go to the mosque dragging themselves on their buttocks if they had not the strength to walk upto it" (Bukhari, Muslim)

Say Prayers in Congregation
Hadrat Abu Darda (may Allah be pleased with him) said: They Holy Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "If they are three persons in a habitation or in a jungle and they do not say their prescribed prayers jointly, it would mean that the devil has gained ascendency over them. Therefore, make a rule for yourselves to say congregational prayers, for a goat which leaves the flock is devoured by the wolf." (Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasai)

Merit of the Congregational Prayer
Hadrat Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: Prayer of a man in his house is one prayer, and his prayer in the mosque of the tribes is prayer by 25 times, and his prayer in the congregational mosque is prayer by 500 times, and his prayer in the farthest mosque Masjid Aqsa (of Jerusalem) is prayer by 50,000 times and his prayer in my mosque is prayer by 50,000 times and his prayer in the sacred mosque (of Ka'ba) is prayer by 100,000 times. (Ibn Majah)

The Timing of the Five Prayers
Hadrat Abdullah bin Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: The time of Zuhr prayer remains till the sun declines and the shadow of a man becomes double his length and so long as the Asr prayer does not come, and the time of Asr prayer remains so long as the sun does not become yellow: and the time of Maghrib prayer remains so long as the red hue does not disappear; and the time for Isha prayers remains up to the midnight, and the time for Fajr prayer runs from the appearance of dawn till the sun does not rise, but when the sun rises, keep away from prayer because it rises between two horns of the devil. (Muslim)

How to Perform Salah
Hadrat Abu Hamid as Sayidi (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated amongst ten of the companions of the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him): I know better than you about the prayer of Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him). They asked: Narrate. He said: When the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) stood for prayer, he raised his hands till he took them opposite his shoulders, then he recited takbir, then he read (the Qur'an), then he recited takbir and raised up his hands till he took them opposite his shoulders, then bowed placing his palms upon his knees, then making himself straight, neither lowering his head nor raising it up. Then he raised up his head saying, "Allah hears one who praises Him": then he raised up his hands till he took them opposite his shoulders by being straight: and he said: "Allah is the greatest." Then he lowered himself to the ground in prostration keeping his hands away from his two sides and bending the toes of his feet, he raised up his head and bent his left foot and sat on it, then he sat straight till every bone returned to its proper place. Next he prostrated and said: "Allah is Most Great", raising himself, and bent on his left foot and sat on it. Then he sat straight till every bone returned to its proper place. Then he stood up and did the same thing in the second Rak'at. At the end of the two Rak'ats he stood and said takbir raising up his hands till he took them opposite his shoulders, just as he recited takbir when he opened the prayer, then he did the same in the remaining portion of his prayer till when the prostration in which there was Taslim, he put out his left foot and sat on his hip bone upon his left side. Then he uttered Taslim. They said: You have spoken the truth. He used to pray thus. (Abu Dawud)

Straight Rows in Salah
Hadrat Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: make your rows straight, because the straightening of lines is part of the Aqamat of prayer. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Follow the Imam
Hadrat Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) led us in prayer one day, and when he finished his prayer he faced us and said, "O people, I am your Imam, so do not bow, prostrate yourselves, stand, or go away before I do, for I see you both in front of me and behind me." (Muslim)

Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah'a Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: The Imam is appointed to be followed. So when he recites takbir, recite takbir: and when he recites (Qur'an), keep silent. (Abu Dawud, an-Nasai, Ibn Majah)

Dua After Salah
Hadrat Sawbhan (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that when Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) finished his prayer, he begged pardon thrice (Istighfaar) and said:
O Allah! Thou are Peace, and from Thee is peace. Thou are Blessed,
O Lord of Glory and Honour. (Muslim)

Tasbih After Salah
Hadrat Ka'ab bin Uzrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: There are some recitations after prayer, of which the reciters or the doers at the end of each obligatory prayer will not be disappointed -Tasbih for 33 times, Tahmid for 33 times and Takbir for 34 times. (Muslim)

Dua Qunut in Salah
Narrated Hadrat Anas (may Allah be pleased with him): The Qunut used to be recited in the Maghrib and the Fajr prayers. (Bukhari)

Salatus-Safar
Narrated Hadrat Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) once stayed for nineteen days and prayed shortened prayers. So when we travelled (and stayed) for nineteen days, we used to shorten the prayer but if we travelled (and stayed) for a longer period we used to offer the full prayer. (Bukhari)

Narrated Hadrat Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) used to offer the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers together on journeys, and also used to offer the Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers together. (Bukhari)

Friday Prayers
Narrated Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "When it is a Friday, the angels stand at the gate of the mosque and keep on writing the names of the persons coming to the mosque in succession according to their arrivals. The example of the one who enters the mosque in the earliest hour is that of one offering a camel (in sacrifice). The one coming next is like one offering a cow and then a ram and then a chicken and then an egg respectively. When the Imam comes out (for Jumu'a prayer) they (i.e. angels) fold their papers and listen to the Khutba." (Bukhari)

Hadrat Abdul Ja'ad az-Zumairi (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said: Whoso gives up three Friday prayers by way of neglecting them, Allah (The Glorified and the Exalted) will seal up his heart. (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, an-Nasai, Ibn Majah)

Eid Prayers
Narrated Hadrat Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) used to offer the prayer of Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr and then deliver the khutba after the prayer. (Bukhari)

Salatul Witr
Narrated mother of faithful believers, Hadrat 'Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) offered Witr prayer at different nights at various hours extending (from the 'Isha prayer) up to the last hour of the night. (Bukhari)

Sunnah Muakkadah
Hadrat Umm Habiba (may Allah be pleased with her) reported Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) as saying, "A house will be built in paradise for anyone who prays in a day and a night twelve rakas (Sunnah prayers), four before and two after the noon prayer, two after the sunset prayer, two after the night prayer and two before the dawn prayer." (Tirmidhi)

Tahajjud
Hadrat Abu Ummah (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "Make Tahajjud prayers obligatory for yourselves. This is the way of pious gone before you and it is a means of attaining nearness to Allah, it atones for your sins and prevents their commission." (Tirmidhi)

Taraweh
Hadrat Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) says that the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) used to encourage people to offer extra prayers (Taraweh) but would not give a positive direction for it. He used to say "Whoso offers Taraweh prayers devotedly and sincerely, all his former sins would be forgiven." The narrator says that this practice continued after the passing away of the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him), during the khilafat of Sayyidina Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and the early part of Sayyidina Umar's (may Allah be pleased with him) khilafat (then it became congregational) (Muslim)

Tahiyyatul Masjid
Narrated Hadrat Abu Qatada bin Rab'i Al-Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "If anyone of you enters a Mosque, he should not sit until he has offered a two Rak'at prayer." (Bukhari)

Salatul Tasbih
Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said to Hadrat Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib (may Allah be pleased with him): O Abbas, O my uncle! Should I not give you, should I not tell you something in lieu of performance of which Allah will forgive all your past and future sins, old and new, done wittingly or unwittingly, evident or concealed. You should offer four Rak'ah of prayers in a way that in each Rak'ah after reciting surah Fatiha and a verse of the Qur'an say fifteen times "SubhanAllah wal Hamdulillah wa la ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar" and then repeat it ten times before finishing the bow, ten times on standing erect and ten times before finishing each of the prostrations, ten times in between them and ten times after the second prostration before getting up. Thus in each Rak'ah this has to be repeated seventy-five times. If you can, offer this prayer every day, if not once in every week or once in every month or at least once in a year. If even this is not possible, at least once in a life time." (Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Baihaqi)

Istikhara Prayer

Narrated Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah As-Salami (may Allah be pleased with him): Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) used to teach his companions to perform the prayer of Istikhara for each and every matter just as he used to teach them the Suras from the Qur'an. He used to say, "If anyone of you intends to do something, he should offer a two-Rak'at prayer other than the compulsory prayers, and after finishing it, he should say: O Allah! I consult You, for You have all knowledge, and appeal to You to support me with Your Power, and ask for Your Bounty, for You are able to do things while I am not, and You Know while I do not, and You are the Knower of the Unseen. O Allah! If You know that this matter (name your matter) is good for me both at present and in the future, (or in my religion), in my present life and in the Hereafter, then fulfil it for me and make it easy for me, and then bestow Your Blessings on me in that matter. O Allah! If You Know that this matter is not good for me in my religion, in my present life and in my coming Hereafter (or at present or in the future), then divert me from it and choose for me what is good whenever it may be, and make me be pleased with it." (Bukhari)

Salatul Istisqa (for rain)
Narrated Abbad bin Tamim from his uncle, "I saw the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) on the day when he went out to offer the Istisqa' prayer. He turned his back towards the people and faced the Qibla and asked Allah for rain. Then he turned his cloak inside out and led us in a two-Rak'ah prayer and recited the Qur'an aloud in them." (Bukhari)

Sunnah Prayer on Sun Eclipse (salatul kusuf)
Narrated Hadrat Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba (may Allah be pleased with him): "The sun eclipsed in the life-time of Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) on the day when (his son) Ibrahim died. So the people said that the sun had eclipsed because of the death of Ibrahim. Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life (i.e. birth) of someone. When you see the eclipse, pray and invoke Allah." (Bukhari)

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