Iqra Islamic Publications


The Holy Prophet Muhammad
Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam

Syed Yaseen Ali

The people of ancient Arabia were misguided and misled. They disobeyed Allah and worshipped idols. Then Allah Ta'ala favoured mankind by sending them the best creation of Allah; the Master of humankind and jinns; the greatest personality on earth; the beloved of Allah, Prophet Muhammad Mustafa Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam.

Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was born in the month of Rabi'al-Awwal in the year, 571 C.E. He was a descendant of Prophet Ismail. His father, Abdullah, died several weeks before his birth. His mother, Amina died during the return journey from Madinah, at a place called Abwa. He was raised by his grandfather, Abdul - Muttalib, until the age of eight. After his grandfather's death, his uncle, Abu Talib, took care of him. Abu Talib treated Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) very kindly. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) would sleep in his uncle's bed and eat with him.

Under the guidance of Abu Talib, Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) began to earn his living as a businessman and a trader. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Abu Talib with a merchant caravan as far as Syria. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was popularly known as 'al-Ameen' (the trustworthy) and 'al-Sadiq' (the truthful) for his good deeds. His name, Muhammad means "the praised one".

After hearing about Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam)'s impressive character, Sayyidatna Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha), a rich merchant, offered Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) money to take some goods for trade to Syria. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) set out for Syria along with Maisarah, a slave of Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha). After the trip, Maisarah told Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) all about the Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) was fascinated by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Therefore, she married him (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) and Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) were blessed with two sons and four daughters. Their first son, Qasim died at the age of two while their second son, Abdullah, died during his infancy. Prophet Muhammad's (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) four daughters were Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatima (Rady Allahu Anhuma).

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) usually went to a cave in Mount Hira for meditation. Sometimes, he would remain in the cave for a month. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was forty years old when Jibril (peace be upon him) appeared before him and revealed the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq. After the revelation, Sayyidatina Khadija (Rady Allahu Anha) became the first woman to accept Islam.

Jibreel (peace be upon him) visited Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) and revealed ayat over a period of twenty-three years. Sometimes, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) would receive some parts of a chapter or a whole chapter. They were memorized as soon as they were revealed. These verses were collected in a book, known as the Qur'an.

The first few people to accept Islam were his cousin Ali, his servant Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rahdy Allahu Anhum) and his daughters. They accepted Islam by testifying that " There is no deity except Allah. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) is Allah's Messenger".

In the first three years of Prophet Muhammad's (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) mission, forty people accepted Islam. He then began to preach Islam in public. The leaders of the Quraish did not accept the new religion. Some of them tried to bribe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) with money and power, including an offer to make him a king. But our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) refused to abandon Allah's message. When this did not work, they tried to convince his uncle, Abu Talib, to allow them to kill Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Therefore, his uncle tried to persuade him from preaching. But Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) said " O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop me from preaching Islam, I would never stop. I will keep on preaching until Allah makes Islam prevail or I die. "

The tribe of Quraish began to persecute Muslims by beating and torturing them. The first person to die by this means was a Muslim woman called Umm Ammar. Our beloved Prophet, Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was publicly humiliated. They threw dirt on him while he was walking on a street and while he was praying in the Kabah. Despite all these hardships, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was told by Allah Ta'ala to be patient and preach the message of the Qur'an. When the punishment became unbearable for Muslims, the Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam), advised them to go to Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

The Quraish made life miserable for Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). They made a ban on contact with the Prophet's (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) family. The ban lasted for three years. After the ban was lifted, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) lost his wife, Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) and his uncle, Abu Talib.

After Sayyidatina Khadijah's death, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) married Sayyidatina Sawdah (Rady Allahu Anha). She was fifty years old. Later, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) married Sayyidatina Aisha (Rady Allahu Anha). Sayyidatina Aisha (Rady Allahu Anha) was the daughter of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rady Allahu Anhu), a close companion of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam).

Since his uncle, Abu Talib died; Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) went to Taif, a city south of Makkah, to preach there. But the people of Taif laughed at him. Their children threw stones at our beloved Prophet (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Jibreel (peace be upo him) visited Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) and suggested that the angels were ready to destroy the town. But Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) refused and prayed for the future generations of Taif to accept Islam.

After the incident at Taif, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) experienced the events of Isra and Mi'raaj. During the event of Isra, Jibreel (peace be upon him) took Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) to Masjid Al-Aqsa, a mosque in Jerusalem, at night. Here, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) lead the other Prophets in prayer. After this, the event of Mi'raaj took place. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was taken to the heavens. It was on this journey that he received the gift of the five daily prayers. He was then taken back to Makkah. When Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) mentioned these events to the people of Makkah, they laughed at him. However, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) described the Masjid al-Aqsa to them and told them that a caravan will be arriving soon. The non-believers were later astonished when this turned out to be true.

The leaders of Quraish were getting angry at Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam).
They decided to kill him. The leaders chose a young man from each clan of Quraish. These men were responsible for attacking Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Jibreel (may peace be upon him) informed Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) about the plan and instructed him to leave immediately. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) advised Hadrat Ali to sleep in his bed. He then met with Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rady Allahu Anhu) and both of them went into hiding in a cave in Mount Thawr.

The next morning, the men raided the house of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). After finding out that he had left, they set out for the mountains in search of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Abu Karz, a man known for his skills in tracking footprints, followed the tracks of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) to the cave. They examined the cave and noticed that a web had covered it's mouth. They thought that it was impossible for Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) to hide in the cave. So, they departed.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) spend three nights in the cave. When he was sure that the Quraish had ended their search, he travelled to Madinah. This journey is known as "Hijra". The Islamic calendar begins with this event. Upon the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam), the people of Madinah greeted him with great respect and treated him with hospitality.

After the migration to Madinah, the enemies of Islam increased their attack on Muslims. The Battles of Badr, Uhud and the Allies took place and were fought near Madinah. Many men gave their life for Islam. This resulted in many widowed women and lots of orphaned children. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) married several widows like Sayyidatina Zainab bint Khuzaimah, Umm Habibah and Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with them.. All his wives, especially Sayyidatina Aisha (Rady Allahu Anha), reported many ahadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad).

A year after the Battle of the Allies, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) and fifteen hundred Muslims left for Makkah to perform Hajj. On their journey, they were stopped from entering Hudaybiyah. In this city, some negotiations took place that allowed them to come next year. This treaty attracted many people from Arabia. Many people came from different parts of Arabia and accepted Islam.

Two years later, the Quraish violated the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. So, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) marched to Makkah with an army of 10,000 Muslims. Before entering the city, he told the citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home or in the Kabah, would be safe. The army entered Makkah without fighting and Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) went directly to the Kabah. He thanked Allah, the Almighty for allowing the entry to Makkah. He then pointed at each idol and recited this verse from the Qur'an, "Truth has come and falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear." One by one the idols fell down. Thus, the Kabah was cleaned. Next, he forgave the leaders of Quraish and the people of Makkah. The people of Makkah then accepted Islam, including the enemies of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Within a year, almost the of whole Arabia had accepted Islam.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) performed his first and last pilgrimage during the tenth year after Hijra. 120,000 men and women performed pilgrimage with him. He received the last revelation during this pilgrimage.Two months later, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) fell sick and after several days left his earthly existence on Monday, 12th Rabi al-Awwal in Madinah. He was 63 years old.

Our beloved Nabi (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) lived a very simple and modest life, even though he could have lived like a king. He (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) and his family used to go without cooked meals for several days at a time, eating dates and dried bread. During the day, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was the busiest man, he performed his duties as the head of state and a family man. He was the most devoted man during the night. He (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) used to spend one to two- thirds of every night in prayer and meditation. Prophet Muhammad's (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) possessions consisted of mats, jugs and other simple things.

At the end of his mission, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was blessed with several followers. Thousands prayed with him and listened to his sermon. Hundreds of sahaba (companions) would find time to be with him during the five daily prayers. They used to seek his advice for their everyday problems. Among them were Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq, Hadrat Umar, Hadrat Uthman, Hadrat Ali, Imam Hassan, Imam Hussain and many others, Rady Allahu Anhum.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) had a beautiful appearance. His sweat was more fragrant then musk and his perspiration shone like pearls. He (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) talked so clearly that someone could count the number of words he spoke. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) never struck anybody with his hand, but he did fight for Islam. He (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) used to forgive his enemies and release prisoners of war.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) was the last Prophet of Allah. All sincere Muslims try to follow the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Many Muslim scholars have composed qasidas in praise of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam). Rasulallah (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) favours upon his Ummah are unlimited. Our Nabi (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) said, " You do not have (complete) Imaan until I am more beloved to you than your father, children and the rest of mankind."

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam) is the connection between Muslims and Allah. We can never get close to Allah unless our hearts are filled with the love of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'Alaihi wa Sallam).

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