Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Rahim
Iqra Islamic Publications
Welcome to Islam
Accept Islam for your salvation
Live according to Islam for your spiritual progress

Muslim Students

(Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam)

By: Syed Yasin Ali

The people of ancient Arabia were misguided and misled. They disobeyed Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala) and worshipped idols. Then Allah Ta‘ala favoured mankind by sending them the best creation of Allah; the Master of humankind and jinn; the greatest personality on earth; the beloved of Allah, Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam).

Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was born in Makkah on 12th of Rabi‘ Awwal in the year 571 C.E. He was a descendant of Prophet Ismail (Alayhissalam). His father’s name was Hadrat Abdullah and his mother’s name was Sayyidatina Amina. He was nursed by Sayyidatina Halima (Rady Allahu Anha). His father, Hadrat Abdullah, passed away several weeks before his birth. His mother, Sayyidatina Amina passed away when he was 6 years old during the return journey from Madinah, at a place called Abwa. He was raised by his grandfather, Hadrat Abdul Muttalib, until the age of eight.

After his grandfather passed away, his uncle, Hadrat Abu Talib, took care of him. Hadrat Abu Talib treated Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) very kindly. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) would sleep in his uncle’s bed and eat with him.

Under the care of Hadrat Abu Talib, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) began to earn his living as a businessman. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Hadrat Abu Talib with a caravan as far as Syria. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was popularly known as ‘as-Sadiq’ (the truthful) and ‘al-Ameen’ (the trustworthy) for his good deeds. His name, Muhammad means “the praised one”.

After hearing about Prophet Muhammad’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) impressive character, Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha), a rich business woman, offered Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) money to take some goods for trade to Syria. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) set out for Syria along with Maisarah, a slave of

Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha). After the trip, Maisarah told Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) all about the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) was fascinated by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Therefore, she married him (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) and Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) were blessed with two sons and four daughters. Their first son, Qasim passed away at the age of two while their second son, Abdullah, passed away during his infancy. Prophet Muhammad’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) four daughters were Sayyidatina Zainab, Sayyidatina Ruqayyah, Sayyidatina Umm Kulthum and Sayyidatina Fatima (Rady Allahu Anhunna).

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) usually went to a cave in Mount Hira for meditation. Sometimes, he would remain in the cave for a month. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was forty years old when Archangel Jibril (‘Alaihissalam) appeared before him and revealed the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq of the Qur’an. After the revelation, Sayyidatina Khadija (Rady Allahu Anha) became the first person to accept Islam.

Sayyidina Jibreel (‘Alaihissalam) visited Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) and revealed verses of the Qur’an over a period of twenty-three years. Sometimes, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) would receive some parts of a chapter or a whole chapter. They were memorized as soon as they were revealed. These verses were collected in a book, known as the Qur’an.

The first few people to accept Islam were his cousin Sayyidina Ali, his servant Hadrat Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rady Allahu Anhum) and his daughters. They accepted Islam by testifying that “There is no deity except Allah. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) is Allah’s Messenger”.

In the first three years of Prophet Muhammad’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) mission, forty people accepted Islam. He then began to preach Islam in public. The leaders of the Quraish did not accept the new religion. Some of them tried to bribe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) with money and power, including an offer to make him a king. But our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) refused to abandon Allah’s Message. When this did not work, they tried to convince his uncle, Abu Talib, to allow them to kill Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Therefore, his uncle tried to dissuade him from preaching. But Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) said “O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop me from preaching Islam, I would never stop. I will keep on preaching until Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala) makes Islam prevail or I die. ”

The tribe of Quraish began to persecute Muslims by beating and torturing them. The first person to die by this means was a Muslim woman called Hadrat Umm ‘Ammar (Rady Allhu Anha). Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was publicly humiliated. They threw dirt on him while he was walking on a street and while he was praying in the Ka‘bah. Despite all these hardships, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was told by Allah Ta‘ala to be patient and preach the Message of the Qur’an. When the punishment became unbearable for Muslims, the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam), advised them to go to Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

The Quraish made life miserable for Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). They made a ban on contact with the Prophet’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) family. The ban lasted for three years. After the ban was lifted, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) lost his wife, Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Anha) and his uncle, Hadrat Abu Talib.

After Sayyidatina Khadijah (Rady Allahu Ahna) passed away, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) married Sayyidatina Sawdah (Rady Allahu Anha). She was fifty years old. Later, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) married Sayyidatina Aisha (Rady Allahu Anha), the daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rady Allahu Anhu), a close Companion of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam).

Since his uncle, Hadrat Abu Talib passed away; Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) went to Taif, a city south-east of Makkah, to preach there. But the people of Taif laughed at him. Their children threw stones at our beloved Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Sayyidina Jibreel (‘Alaihissalam) visited Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) and suggested that the angels were ready to destroy the town. But Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) refused and prayed for the future generations of Taif to accept Islam.

After the incident at Taif, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) experienced the events of Isra and Mi‘raaj. During the event of Isra, Sayyidina Jibreel (‘Alaihissalam) took Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) to Masjid Al-Aqsa, a masjid in Jerusalem, at night. Here, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) led the other Prophets (‘Alaihimussalam) in Prayer. After this, the event of Mi‘raaj took place. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was taken to the heavens. It was on this journey that he received the gift of the five daily Prayers. He was then taken back to Makkah. When Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) mentioned these events to the people of Makkah, they laughed at him. However, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) described the Masjid al-Aqsa to them and told them that a caravan will be arriving soon. The non-believers were later astonished when this turned out to be true. Mi‘raaj is one of the many miracles of the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam).

The leaders of Quraish were getting angry at Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). They decided to kill him. The leaders chose a young man from each clan of Quraish. These men were responsible for attacking Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Sayyidina Jibreel (‘Alaihissalam) informed Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) about the plan and instructed him to leave immediately. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) advised Sayyidina Ali (Rady Allahu ‘Anhu) to sleep in his bed. He then met with Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq (Rady Allahu ‘Anhu) and both of them went into hiding in a cave in Mount Thawr.

The next morning, the men raided the house of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). After finding out that he had left, they set out for the mountains in search of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Abu Karz, a man known for his skills in tracking footprints, followed the tracks of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) to the cave. They examined the cave and noticed that a web had covered its mouth. They thought that it was impossible for Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) to hide in the cave. So, they departed.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) spent three nights in the cave. When he was sure that the Quraish had ended their search, he travelled to Madinah. This journey is known as “Hijra”. The Islamic calendar begins with this event. Upon the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam), the people of Madinah greeted him with great respect and treated him with hospitality.

After the migration to Madinah, the enemies of Islam increased their attack on Muslims. The Battles of Badr, Uhud and al-Ahzab took place and were fought near Madinah. Many men gave their lives for Islam. This resulted in many widowed women and lots of orphaned children. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) married several widows like Sayyidatina Zainab bint Khuzaimah, Sayyidatina Umm Habibah and Sayyidatina Umm Salamah (Rady Allahu Anhunna). All his wives, especially Sayyidatina Aisha (Rady Allahu Anha), reported many Ahadith (Sayings of Prophet Muhammad).

A year after the Battle of the Allies, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) and fifteen hundred Muslims left for Makkah to perform Hajj. On their journey, they were stopped from entering Hudaybiyyah. In this city, some negotiations took place that allowed them to come next year. This treaty attracted many people from Arabia. Many people came from different parts of Arabia and accepted Islam.

Two years later, the Quraish violated the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. So, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) marched to Makkah with an army of 10,000 Muslims. Before entering the city, he told the citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in the house of Abu Sufyan or in the Ka‘bah, would be safe. The army entered Makkah without fighting and Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) went directly to the Ka‘bah. He thanked Allah, the Almighty for allowing the entry to Makkah. He then pointed at each idol and recited this verse from the Qur’an,
And proclaim, Truth has come and falsehood has vanished; indeed, falsehood is always bound to vanish. (Surah Bani Israil, 17:81)

One by one the idols fell down. Thus, the Ka‘bah was cleaned. Next, he forgave the leaders of Quraish and the people of Makkah. The people of Makkah then accepted Islam, including the enemies of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Within a year, almost the whole of Arabia had accepted Islam.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) performed his first and last Pilgrimage during the tenth year after Hijra. 120,000 men and women performed Pilgrimage with him. He received the last revelation during this Pilgrimage.Two months later, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) fell sick and after several days left his earthly existence on Monday, 12th Rabi Awwal in Madinah. He was 63 years old.

Our beloved Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) lived a very simple and modest life, even though he could have lived like a king. He (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) and his family used to go without cooked meals for several days at a time, eating dates and dried bread. During the day, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was the busiest man, he performed his duties as the head of state and a family man. He (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) used to spend one to two- thirds of every night in prayer and meditation. Prophet Muhammad’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) possessions consisted of mats, jugs and other simple things.

At the end of his mission, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) was blessed with several followers. Thousands prayed with him and listened to his sermons. Hundreds of Sahaba (Companions) would find time to be with him during the five daily Prayers. They used to seek his advice for their everyday problems. Among them were Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq, Sayyidina Umar, Sayyidina Uthman, and Sayyidina Ali (Rady Allahu Anhum).

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) had a beautiful appearance. His sweat was more fragrant than musk and his perspiration shone like pearls. He (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) talked so clearly that someone could count the number of words he spoke. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) never struck anybody with his hand, but he did fight for Islam. He (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) used to forgive his enemies and release prisoners of war.

He had the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders.

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) is the last Prophet of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala). All sincere Muslims try to follow the Sunnah (tradition) of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Many Muslim scholars have composed qasidas in praise of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam). Rasulullah’s (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) favours upon his Ummah (community) are unlimited. Our Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) said, “You do not have (complete) Imaan (Faith) until I am more beloved to you than your father, children and the rest of mankind.”

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) is the connection between Muslims and Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala). We can never get close to Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta‘ala) unless our hearts are filled with the love of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam).

Muslims strive to send abundant salams and salawat (salutations and blessings) on the beloved Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) as commanded to us by Allah Ta‘ala. Sending salutations and blessings on the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) enables Muslims to draw closer to the Prophet and increase their love for him. The most famous salat is the Salat al-Ibrahimiyyah, which was taught to us by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) as mentioned in a Hadith in Bukhari. Its translation is:

“O Allah! Shower blessings upon Sayyidina Muhammad
and on the Family of Sayyidina Muhammad
as you showered blessings upon Sayyidina Ibrahim
and on the Family of Sayyidina Ibrahim.
Surely, You are the Praiseworthy, Glorious
O Allah! Bestow favours upon Sayyidina Muhammad
and on the Family of Sayyidina Muhammad
as You bestowed favours on Sayyidina Ibrahim
and on the Family of Sayyidina Ibrahim.
Surely, You are the Praiseworthy, Glorious.”
Dhu’l Hijjah 1419, March 1999.

< Return to Muslim Students Index

< Return