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Iqra Islamic Publications
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Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

M is for Muhammad u’r Rasūlullāh

Muhammad u’r Rasūlullāh
Muhammad is the Prophetic Messenger of Allāh. This is part of verse (48:29) of the Holy Qur’ān, and is an integral part of the Muslim declaration of faith which is:
lā ilāha Illallāh Muhammad u’r Rasūlullāh
None is to be worshipped but Allāh
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh.
To declare this and to believe in it is the first of the five pillars on which the religion of Islām is based.
Any non-Muslim who believes in this and declares it, becomes a Muslim. O Allāh! Open the hearts of all the non-Muslims to Islām so that they also experience the joys of being a Muslim.
We see that in this Kalimah (Declaration of Muslim Belief), our Holy Prophet’s beloved name Muhammad is enveloped on both the sides with the Name of Allāh. We notice that the name Muhammad follows immediately after the Name of Allāh. Indeed it is joined to it. This is the extent to which Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā loves Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam that He has joined His Own Name with that of His Most Beloved Prophet.
Sallū ‘ala’r Rasūl
Allāhumma Salli wa Sallim ‘alayh
Invoke blessings on Prophet Muhammad
May the peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him!

Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam
“The praised one”, name of the final and greatest Prophetic Messenger sent by Allāh to guide the whole of humanity to the religion of Islām till the end of time. Muslims are eternally thankful to Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā for blessing them with such a noble Prophet.
His father’s name was ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib. His mother’s name was Āmina bint Wahb.
He was born in Makka and received the first revelation of verses of the Holy Qur’ān at the age of 40. The Holy Qur’ān, the Eternal Uncreated Word of Allāh was revealed to him over a period of 23 years. It is the Final, Complete and Total Guidance of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā for the whole of humanity till the end of time.
When he began to preach pure Islamic monotheism, the polytheists became his enemies and persecuted him and his followers like no Prophet had been persecuted before. So he migrated to Madīna to escape their persecution.
He is the best creation of Allāh and showed through his exemplary life-style how to perfect moral character.
He is Rahmatullil ‘ālamīn, a mercy for all the worlds. He is al-Insān al-Kāmil, the Perfect Man who combined in himself the noble qualities of the Prophets who came before him in the greatest measure.
He would give away whatever came into his possession the very same day before going to sleep. He himself patched his clothes, repaired his shoes, milked the goats, and never on any occasion did he eat to the full.
He worshipped Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā in a standing position for long periods at night until his feet got swollen.
He is the most written about person in all human history. He is the most loved person in the whole of humanity. Muslims love him so much that they try to pattern their life-style according to his life-style in each and every minor detail. Muslims imitate him the way he smiled; the way he greeted people; the way he ate; the way he dressed; the way he prayed; the way he loved and helped the poor, the oppressed and the orphans; and so on. He is the most blessed person in all human history. More people invoke the blessings of Allāh on him more times everyday than on any other person.
He will the first person to be resurrected on the Day of Judgment, the first to intercede with Allāh and the first whose intercession will be accepted.
When he preached Islām, more and more people all over Arabia began to accept Islām as a religion that preached the worship of only One God, Allāh, high moral values, the unity of mankind, the brotherhood of Muslims, and a way of life that denounced racism, castes, and sects, and promoted generosity, fraternity and love.
Our beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam came back to Makka with his huge army of followers and was able to capture it without shedding blood as the Makkans surrendered without a fight. He forgave all his enemies who had persecuted him all these years. He set an example of valour, chivalry and magnanimity unequalled in human history.
He destroyed all the idols in the Ka‘ba and instituted pure Islamic monotheism.
Allāh has himself praised him in the Holy Qur’ān. Who can match the praise of Allāh?
The mu’minīn (believing Muslims) love him more that their own selves. That means that they are prepared to sacrifice their lives and everything that they have so that the Word of Allāh is raised high above everything else and the greater good of the whole of humanity is promoted

mā fī qalbī ghayrullāh
There is nothing in my heart other than Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā. This is one of the recitations in the dhikr of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

mā jā’a bihī Rasūlullāh
whatever the Messenger of Allāh came with. Muslims believe in all the teachings that Prophet MuhammadSallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam came with

mā shā’ Allāh
“whatever Allāh wishes” said when appreciating someone or something

water. Water is a great gift from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā for which we should be thankful to Him, and not waste it

with the truthful. Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā commands us in the Qur’ān to be with the truthful


The One who is worshipped, Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

assistance, help, support.
The help of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā is invoked at all times. He might send His angels to help or He might send the rijāl u’l ghayb (men of the unseen). He might help with the means of many unimaginable forces which He has created. He might help without any means. All is within His Power. He is the All-Powerful. The murīd (spiritual disciple) gets madad (spiritual help) from his shaykh (spiritual master) with the Will of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā.
When a Muslim country is attacked, it is obviously not advisable to seek the help of non-Muslims, as they have their own agendas. Muslims need to be vigilant, united, strong and resolved to help each other when in need

madahahū Rabbuhū
His Lord praised him. Refers to the praise of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā in the Holy Qur’ān

a school of Muslim law. The four schools are Hanafī, Shāfi‘ī, Mālikī and Hanbalī (pl: madhāhib)

praise, eulogy. Refers to religious poetry praising Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam (syn: madh, pl: madāih)

Madīna al-Munawwara
the illuminated city, the name of the second most holy city which is the last resting place of the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

Madīnat u’l ‘ilm
the city of knowledge, refers to Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

Madīnat u’n Nabī
the city of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam; refers to Madīna

Muslim school to teach Islām

permanent forgiveness, pardon from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

maghnātīs u’l asrār
the magnet of mysteries, refers to Rātib u’l Attās, a regular voluntary invocation to Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā compiled by al-Habīb ‘Umar bin ‘Abdu’r Rahmān al-‘Attās, Rady Allāhu ‘Anhu

sunset prayer; Maghrib also refers to the West, and is the Arabic name for Morocco

Allāh is al-Wadūd (The Loving).
Love for Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā (Mahabbatullāh) burns deep in every Muslim’s heart. Muslims love Allāh more than anyone or anything else. Love for our Beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam (Mahabbatu’r Rasūl) runs in the blood of every Muslim. A Muslim’s īmān (faith) is incomplete until he loves him more than his own self.
Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam is Habīb Allāh (the Beloved of Allāh).
Muslims love the Qur’ān and the Hadīth (Sayings) of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam.
Muslims love all the Prophets (peace be upon them) sent by Allāh.
Muslims love to worship Allāh and do His dhikr (remembrance).
Muslims love hamd (praise of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā) and madīh (praise of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam).
Muslims love the Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet’s Household) and the Sahāba (his Companions).
Muslims love the awliyā’ Allāh (Friends of Allāh, sūfī masters) and the sālihīn (the pious).
The love of human beings, animals, birds and all living creatures for their young ones is from the Mercy of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā. Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam has said that those who do not love children are not of us.
The love of one’s mother and grandmother can never be forgotten.
According to a Saying of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, looking at parents with love and affection has a heavenly reward equivalent to performing ‘Umra.
Your shaykh’s love for you sustains you and gives meaning to your life.
Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam has said that you will be with those whom you love. He also said that Muslims have to love for their brother what they love for themselves. Muslims have to be ahl al-mahabba (loving people) who love one another only for the sake of Allāh.
Love for one’s spouse is rewarded by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā as it is a good deed. Being faithful to one’s spouse and achieving marital harmony is heaven here and is rewarded with heaven in the Hereafter.
Muslim scholars have for long debated about the relative merits of love and reason, and they have come to the inevitable conclusion that love is dominant over reason.
Muslims love Makka and Madīna.
Muslims love beauty and beautiful character.
Muslims love to acquire knowledge and good character.
Muslims love to serve humanity in general and Muslims in particular.


cradle. The lullaby for the baby in the cradle is hamd (Praise of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā) and salawāt (invocation of blessings) on our Beloved Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafā Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam. We have to seek useful knowledge from the cradle to the grave

the rightly-guided; a descendant of Sayyidatinā Fātima, Rady Allāhu ‘Anhā, who will come towards the end of time. He will come before Prophet ‘Īsā, ‘Alayhissalām comes back to earth from the heavens. He will guide the people to the right path of Islām and establish justice on earth

the protected one whom Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā has preserved from misdeeds; one who does not strive for anything other than the fulfilment of Allāh’s Commands (f: mahzah)


bridal gift given by the husband to the wife upon marrying

a relative with whom marriage is forbidden; unmarriageable kin, denotes a close familial relationship between a man and a woman. Some examples are: brother and sister, uncle and niece, son and mother

deprived. We pray to Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā not to deprive us of the bliss in the Hereafter, Āmīn

life (syn: ma‘īsha)

a gathering, spiritual assembly (pl: majālis)

majālis adh-dhikr
assemblies for the remembrance of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

majālis u’l ilm
assemblies of learning from a shaykh

figurative, metaphorical

Glory (of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

enraptured (as in the remembrance of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

the Compendium, a collection of writings

mad. Someone madly in love, someone totally immersed in the love of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

Zoroastrians, Magians (s: Majūsī)


makārim al-akhlāq
noble qualities of character. The beloved Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam demonstrated noble character to perfection

pains of childbirth

the creation of Allāh

the name of the most holy city in which Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam was born and which contains the sacred Ka‘ba in the direction of which Muslims face in prayer. It is also known as umm al-qurā (the mother of all the towns)

Makkī Madanī
Of Makka and Madīna. A title of love and respect for Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam. The Holy Qur’ān was revealed to him over a period of 23 years, for 13 years in Makka and for 10 years in Madīna. Muslims follow his total teachings and lifestyle, while he was in Makka as well as while he was in Madīna

disliked action but not forbidden, for example: smoking, to be highly discouraged and avoided. Makrūh actions are not punished but abstaining from them to please Allāh merits heavenly reward

written, pre-ordained (by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

letters, writings. For example, the Maktūbāt of Imām Rabbānī Mujaddid Alfi Thānī Sayyid Ahmad as-Sirhindī, Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh

property, wealth. Wealth is a trial from Allāh to be acquired lawfully and to be used to good end. Wealth remains behind here. What accompanies us to the Hereafter are our good deeds (pl: amwāl)

al-Mala’ al-A‘lā
the Supreme Assembly of angels in heaven

the name of the graveyard in Makka. It is also called Jannat u’l Ma‘lāh (the Paradise of Ma‘lāh)

angels. Angels have been made from light. They are neither male nor female. They neither eat nor drink and they are always in worshipful obedience of Allāh (s: malak)

malā’ikatu’l muqarrabūn
the angels brought near to Allāh

Malak al-mawt
the angel of death who removes the soul

the Kingdom of Heaven, the world of the angels, the invisible world, the spiritual world

utterances, a collection of sayings (of a saint)

it is also the name of the angel who is the keeper of the gates of Hell

one of the four schools of Muslim law, that of Imām Mālik, Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh

the cursed one (refers to satan and his followers) (pl: mal‘ūnīn)

prohibited in sacred Muslim law; for example fasting on the day of ‘Īd

inner content, the meaning, significance, spiritual perception (pl: ma‘ānī)


manām sādiq
a true dream

the records and anecdotes of the saints and the pious; virtues, glorious deeds; a type of biography which describes the virtues and glorious deeds of a person

minaret (the construction of which is a bid‘a hasana, a good innovation)

the arkān or essential components of ceremonies of Hajj (s: mansak)

an idol in the Hijāz which used to be worshipped by the pagans during the pre-Islamic period

recommended, a recommended good deed. If you do it to please Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā, you are rewarded; if you omit it, you are not punished in the Hereafter (syn: mustahab)

manna wa’s salwā
a sweet liquid and quails which Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā provided as food for the people of Nabī Mūsā Alayhissalām

faculty of speech, logic

an instructive poem. For example, manzūma Asmā Allāh u’l Husnā is a religious poem which contains the Most Beautiful Names of Allāh in the order in which they appear in the Hadīth, with the aim of conveying the meanings of the Beautiful Names of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

seat, position (pl: maqā‘id)

maq‘adi sidq
seat of truthfulness

station, spiritual station, spiritual realization which is established and permanent.
Some of the spiritual stations are:
tawbah (repentance to Allāh);
rajā’ wa’l khawf (hope in Allāh’s Mercy as well as fear of falling from His Grace);
sabr (patience in the face of hardship);
shukr (thankfulness to Allāh);
zuhd (asceticism, abstinence from worldly desires);
tawakkul (trust in Allāh);
al-hubbu Fi’llāh (the love of Allāh);
and ridā (joyful contentment with whatever Allāh decrees) (pl: maqāmāt)

Maqām Ibrāhīm
the station of Prophet Ibrāhīm ‘Alayhissalām besides the Ka‘ba where he stood to build the Ka‘ba. The mark of his footprints can still be seen there

al-Maqām al-Mahmūd
The highest Praised Station in Paradise to which only Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam will be raised

maqām mahabbatAllāh
the spiritual station in which love for Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā is engraved in the heart

maqām mahabbatu’r Rasūl
the spiritual station in which love for the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam is engraved in the heart

maqām mahabbatu’sh shaykh
the spiritual station in which love for one’s shaykh (spiritual master) is engraved in the heart

approved, accepted. We always hope and pray that Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā accepts our good deeds, prayers and supplications

intention, purpose. All the good deeds have to be done purely for the sake of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā and not for show or for any other worldly reason (pl: maqāsid)

sickness, illness. This is a trial from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā that has to be borne with patience (pl: amrād)


“elevated”, a Saying of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, narrated by one of his Companions that the Prophet said this and this


the one who receives the mercy of Allāh, refers to someone who is deceased (f: marhūma)

sick person. To visit the sick is a Sunnah, a Prophetic tradition. May Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā bestow complete health on all those who are sick and ailing, Āmīn

knowledge of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā, gnosis, the direct knowledge of higher spiritual realities, witnessing the lights of the Names and Attributes of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā in the heart. It begins with inspiration (ilhām), then unveiling (kashf or mukāshafa), then contemplative vision from the heart (shuhūd or mushāhada)

knowing the Attributes of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā. No one can know the Dhāt (Essence) of Allāh

approved, good deeds; well-known (example: well-known Hadīth)

a hill near the Ka‘ba in Makka

Maryam Alayhassalām
She is the mother of Prophet ‘Īsā (Jesus, peace be upon him). She bore him while no man had touched her, hence she is referred to as the Blessed Virgin Mary.
She was a descendant of Nabī Dāwūd ‘Alayhissalām, and her guardian was Nabī Zakariyya ‘Alayhissalām. Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is Most Great!)
Muslims always add Sayyidatinā (our Lady) before her name and ‘Alayhassalām (peace be upon her) after her name.
Nabī ‘Īsā ‘Alayhissalām is always referred to as Nabī ‘Īsā ibn Maryam (Prophet ‘Īsā son of Sayyidatinā Maryam, peace be upon them both).
Sūrah 19 of the Holy Qur’ān has been named Sūrah Maryam after her. Women who are pregnant should recite it, especially when they have labour pains and pray to Allāh to make their delivery easy for them.
Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam said that Sayyidatinā Maryam, Sayyidatinā Āsiyah, Sayyidatinā Khadīja and Sayyidatinā Fātima are the four greatest women and he mentioned Sayyidatinā Maryam ‘Alayhassalām first. Muslims love all of them like their own family.
Sayyidatinā Maryam ‘Alayhassalām was present together with Sayyidatinā Āsiya ‘Alayhassalām at the birth of our Beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam.
Among the qualities of Sayyidatinā Maryam ‘Alayhassalām is that she is ‘adhrā’ (virgin), waliyyah (saint), qānitah (devout), sā’imah (one who observed fast), sābirah (patiently persevering), shākirah (thankful to Allāh), tāhira (pure), siddīqah (sincere, truthful), ma‘sūma (sinless), and kāmila (perfect mother, perfect saint)

a problem or an issue for which a legal verdict is sought or has been obtained from a qualified Muslim jurist (pl: masā’il)

to walk. For each step that we walk to the masjid, one hasana (good deed) is recorded in our account of good deeds, one (minor) sin is forgiven, and one of our spiritual degrees (darajāt) is raised

spiritual masters (s: shaykh)

The Will of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

well-known, refers especially to a well-known Hadīth (Saying of Prophet Muhammad) handed down by at least three different reliable authorities

east (syn: sharq)

the Messiah, refers to Prophet Īsā, ‘Alayhissalām (peace be upon him)

sin, disobedience (pl: ma‘āsin)

a house established for the worship of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā (pl: masājid)

al-Masjid u’l Harām
the Grand Masjid in Makka, the most sacred masjid. The Ka‘ba is situated in it

Masjid u’n Nabawī
Prophet Muhammad’s Masjid in Madīna, the second most sacred masjid

Masjid u’l Aqsā
The al-Aqsā Masjid in Jerusalem, the third most sacred masjid

Masjid u’t Taqwā
“the Masjid built on piety”, the first masjid to be built by Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam and his Companions at Qubā, about 3 miles southeast of Madīna

Masjid u’l Qiblatayn
the masjid of the two qibla in which came the Divine Command to change the direction of prayer from Masjid u’l Aqsā to the Ka‘ba in Makka

Masjid u’l Khayf
the masjid in Mina, five miles from Makka

public good or general welfare

founded on the traditions of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

sin, disobedience of the Commands of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā (pl: ma‘āsin)

Happy, Lucky (f: mas‘ūdah)

sinless. For example, the Prophets ‘Alayhimussalām are protected by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā from sinning

round trip, area of the circumambulation of the Ka‘ba

rain. Rain is a blessing from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā as it revives the dead earth. It fills the brooks and the streams, and the gorges and the water-falls and sends them humming the glorification of Allāh, their Creator. And the mist that is produced from the waterfalls is in spiritual ecstasy.
May Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā bestow peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam and upon his Family and Companions as many times as the number of rain drops from the beginning of creation till the end of time, Āmīn

parable, metaphor, simile, example (pl: amthāl)

Often-repeated (seven) verses, refers to Sūrah Al-Fātiha, the opening chapter of the Holy Qur’ān

a religious poem in which the two hemistich (half verses) of a verse rhyme, and the rhyme keeps on changing from one verse to the next. For example, the Mathnawī of Mawlānā Jalāluddīn Rūmī Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh

one who is sought after, refers to one’s shaykh

the text of Hadīth, Saying of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

love, loving kindness, friendship

freedmen, those emancipated from slavery

sermon, admonition, religious exhortation (pl: mawā‘iz)

wave. O Allāh! Bestow peace and blessings on Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam and upon his Family and Companions as many times as are the waves in the seas (pl: amwāj)

is, is present, exists

The Ever-Existing, an attribute of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

“our master”, a term of respect


Mawlid u’n Nabī
the joyful celebration of the birth of the beloved Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, on 12th Rabī‘ Awwal. Such a joyful celebration is ‘amal sālih (a good deed)

Mawlid u’n Nabī nazm
spontaneously joyful religious poetry about the birth and life of the Beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam

death. In the sūfī tradition, it refers to the death of selfish desire

fortunate, blessed (pl: mayāmīn, f: Maymūna)

game of chance, gambling. It is harām or unlawful in Islām (syn: qimār)

a dead human body (pl: mawtā, mayyitūn)

the oppressed, a victim of tyranny.
O Allāh! Protect, help and give success to the oppressed Muslims of Palestine, ‘Irāq, Chechnya and Kashmīr who are the victims of the tyranny of non-Muslims. O Allāh! Protect all the oppressed people all over the world who are victims of tyranny.
Tyrants always come to a sorry end. They had better beware of the cry of the oppressed if they wish to save themselves

someone who is excused. For example, those who are too old are excused from fasting in the month of Ramadān but they have to give fidya, that is, give two proper meals to a needy person for every fast that is missed



Miftāh u’l Jannah
the key to Paradise which is the Kalimah Shahāda (Muslim Declaration of Faith) as well as the daily regular prayer (salāh)

prayer niche in a masjid indicating the direction of the Ka‘ba in Makka for prayer (pl: mahārīb)

mihrāb u’t tawhīd
the prayer niche of monotheism

the name of one of the greatest angels who is mentioned in the Qur’ān. He is responsible for the distribution of rainfall

millati Rasūlillāh
the religious community of the Prophetic Messenger of Allāh; the community that follows the traditions of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam. It refers to the Muslims. When a dead Muslim’s body is lowered into the grave, it is Sunnah (a Prophetic tradition) to recite: Bismillāhi wa alā millati Rasūlillāh (In the Name of Allāh and on the tradition of Prophet Muhammad, may Allāh’s blessings and peace be upon him)

millatun wāhida
one united community of Muslims

a religious poem in which all the verses end and rhyme in the letter mīm

a place outside Makka on the road to ‘Arafa. It is five miles away from Makka and about 10 miles from ‘Arafa. There are three pillars in Mina that represent satan. They are pelted with pebbles by Muslim pilgrims as a rite of the Muslim Pilgrimage, symbolizing the total rejection of satan

pulpit, steps on which the Imām (prayer leader) stands to deliver the khutba (sermon) on Friday (Jumu‘a)

way, road

boundary of the area around Makka, before entering which, a pilgrim has to be in Ihrām, having put on the pilgrim’s clothing. It is forbidden to enter Mīqāt without Ihrām during Hajj or for ‘Umra (pl: mawāqīt)

the Heavenly Ascension of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, body and soul, on the night of the 27th of Rajab from Masjid al-Aqsā in Jerusalem to the seven heavens and beyond in which he reached the presence of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā and received the gift of five times daily prayer from Him

inheritance. The best of inheritances is good character and useful knowledge

lamp, lantern


musk. The sweat of the Beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam was more fragrant than musk

needy, poor. The Holy Qur'ān exhorts us to feed the poor, the orphans and the prisoners (pl. masākīn)

the covenant with Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā taken by all the Prophets ‘Alayhimussalām and by all the souls

similarity, comparison. Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā cannot be compared with anyone or anything. Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā does not resemble anyone or anything. He is the only Original Creator and everything is His Creation. In Allāh’s creation, no one can be compared with Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam as he is Allāh’s best creation

the balance, the scales to be established on the Day of Judgement to weigh good and bad deeds

flute. Hadrat Abū Mūsā al-Ash‘arī Rady Allāhu ‘Anhu used to recite the Qur’ān so melodiously that the Beloved Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam said that he had been given a flute from the flutes of Nabī Dāwūd ‘Alayhissalām (Prophet David, peace be upon him)

the person who gives the adhān calling people to prayer. Sayyidinā Bilāl Rady Allāhu Anhu was the mu’adhdhin of Sayyidinā wa Nabiyyinā Muhammad al-Mustafā Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam. When Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam passed away, Sayyidinā Bilāl said he would not be able to give the adhān, as he could not bear the separation from his beloved Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam. When people insisted that he give the adhān, he agreed but he could not complete the adhān as he fell down in a faint half-way through after reciting Ash-hadu anna Muhammad ar-Rasūlullāh (I bear witness that certainly Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh), such was his love for Habīb u’l A‘zam Sayyidinā wa Nabiyyinā wa Mawlānā Muhammad al-Mustafā Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam!
Allāhu Akbar (Allāh is Supremely Great!)

lasting immunity, pardon

author (pl: mu’allifīn)

teacher. Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam said that a mu‘allim will be allowed to intercede for ten of his students on the Day of Judgment. Respect for the mu‘allim is next in importance to the respect for the father (pl: mu‘allimūn, mu‘allimīn, f: mu‘allima, f. pl: mu‘allimāt)

social behaviour in worldly transactions; mutual relations (pl: mu‘āmalāt)

someone who is perfumed, scented; one of the attributes of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

the last two chapters of the Qur’ān named “al-Falaq” and “an-Nās” which are about taking refuge with Allāh from evil. The recitation of these two Sūrah wards off calamities, both big and small

squanderer, one who spends wastefully (pl: mubadhdhirīn)

permissible, permitted actions for which there is neither punishment nor reward in the Hereafter

blessed, blessed by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā. Example: ‘Īd mubarak: blessed ‘Īd(f: mubāraka)

good news

grave or major sins. According to one of the Sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, these are: to worship anyone or anything other than Allāh, sorcery, murder, devouring orphan’s property, practice of usury, abstaining from conscription on the day of jihād (a just battle against non-believers), and slandering innocent women (syn: kabāir)

flattery, hypocrisy, deceit, compromising one’s principles

a religious poem which contains in one of its verses the name Mudar who was an ancestor of the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam

a measure of weight equal to about two-thirds of a kilogram, a double-handed scoop

term, period of time

a discourse or exposition in a session of dhikr (remembrance of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

one who leads others astray

one who explains or gives a commentary on the Holy Qur’ān (pl: mufassirīn)


those who are successful (here and in the Hereafter)

bankrupt, morally bankrupt

a religious authority who gives legal verdicts in Islām

an authoritative compiler of Hadīth (Sayings of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam); a scholarly authority on Hadīth, the two most famous being Imām al-Bukhārī Rahmatullāhi alayh and Imām Muslim Rahmatullāhi alayh (pl: muhaddithīn)

one who emigrates, especially for religious reasons; whoever undertakes to transfer himself or herself spiritually for the sake of Islām, giving up all those things which Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā has forbidden (f: muhājirah)

the Companions of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam who emigrated from Makka and other places to Madīna in the life-time of the Prophet

verifier, one who establishes the reality for himself, one who has understanding of reality, possessor of certitude, one who gives everyone their rightful due (pl: muhaqqiqūn, muhaqqiqīn)

sacred, name of the first month in the Muslim calendar in which fighting is prohibited

strictly unlawful

self-examination, to make sure one is fulfilling one’s duties and responsibilities as a Muslim

one who loves, for example: one who loves Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā and Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

Muhibb u’d dīn
the lover of religion

destructive vices, the ways to perdition

Muhr Nubuwwa
The Seal of Prophethood, which lay between the shoulders of the Beloved Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam

man of moral excellence, good-doer (pl: muhsinīn f: muhsinah)

rightly-guided (pl: muhtadūn, muhtadīn)

Muhy u’d dīn
The reviver of religion, a title bestowed on spiritual masters, for example Muhy u’d dīn Shaykh ‘Abdul Qādir al-Jīlānī, Rady Allāhu ‘Anhu


Mu‘īn u’d dīn
The helper of religion, one of the titles of Mawlānā Mu‘īn u’d Dīn Chishtī Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh

Muhyi’s Sunnah
The reviver of the lifestyle of our beloved Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

the renewer of the religion of Islām in every century

exertion, striving in the way of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā (pl: mujāhadāt)

one who exerts or struggles in the way of Allāh; one who fights against oppressive non-believers to root out their tyranny and establish Islamic justice (pl: mujāhidīn, f: mujāhidah)

proven by experience. For example, people know through experience that the du‘ā (supplication) of sūfī saints is answered by Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

miracle of a Prophet ‘Alayhissalām that cannot be matched by disbelievers who challenged him to show them a miracle (pl: mu‘jizāt)

sinner, culprit. Each Muslim considers himself a sinner and prays to Allāh for forgiveness in the five times daily prayers as well as after the five times daily prayers (pl: mujrimūn, mujrimīn)

someone who has achieved such a high level of learning and spiritual excellence as to be able to do ijtihād, that is, give expert legal judgment on religious issues. The historically accepted absolute mujtahidīn are Imām Abū Hanīfa, Imām Shāfi‘ī, Imām Mālik and Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Rady Allāhu ‘Anhum, who are the imāms of madh-hab (sacred Muslim law) (pl: mujtahidīn)

a responsible person, who is sane and mature, and so is answerable for his or her deeds and obligated to observe the precepts of religion

gnostic inspiration, unveiling (of spiritual mysteries)

The Bringer-into-being of each and everything (an attribute of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

a humble (yet dignified) person (pl: mukhbitīn)

a sincere person, sincere adherent (pl: mukhlisīn, f: mukhlisah)

short and sweet, in summary form

atheist, heretic, apostate

the kingdom, the visible world

The Kingdom (of Allāh). It is recommended to recite Sūrah al-Mulk of the Holy Qur’ān after ‘Ishā salāh as it wards off punishment in the grave and leads to forgiveness from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

the place between the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone in the Ka‘ba) and the door of the Ka‘ba. It is recommended to make du‘ā (supplication) at al-Multazam according to the Sunnah (tradition) of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

a believing Muslim who has īmān, that is, one who has the conviction that Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā is indeed the only one Who is to be worshipped and that Sayyidinā Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam is His final Prophet whose guidance is to be followed (pl: mu’minūn, mu’minīn, f: mu’minah, f. pl: mu’mināt)


possible (pl: mumkināt)

a caller (to Islām)

a hypocrite, one who professes to be a Muslim but his heart rejects Islām.
It also refers to someone who acts hypocritically with Muslims. When he is with the Muslims, he tells them he is with them and when he is with the enemies of Muslims, he tells them he is with them. May Allāh save us from their mischief, Āmīn (pl: munāfiqūn, munāfiqīn)

personal supplication to Allāh begging deliverance (sometimes in verse)

suitable, appropriate

Illuminated (f: Munawwarah)

a religious poem with the word “faraj” (joy, pleasure) in one of its opening verses

one who spends in charitable ways, giving zakāh (poor-due), sadaqah (charity), and fī Sabīlillāh (in the Way of Allāh) (pl: munfiqīn)

Illuminating (f: Munīra)

the ways to salvation, qualities in a person which lead to Allāh’s forgiveness

Munkar wa Nakīr
the two angels who examine the dead in their graves as to their faith

disapproved, bad deed (pl: munkarāt)

one who denies (religion)

one who hymns aloud religious poems in a gathering (pl: munshidīn)

leader of a sūfī spiritual fraternity, for example: al-Faqīh al-Muqaddam Muhammad ibn ‘Alī Bā ‘Alawī, the spiritual axis of the Bā ‘Alawī tarīqah


introduction (to a book or chapter)

Muqallib al-qulūb
The Converter of hearts (an attribute of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

follower of a madh-hab (school of religious law) (pl: muqallidūn)

those drawn near to Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā. We draw near to Him not in the sense of physical distance, but in a qualitative sense by performing good deeds and polishing our heart so that it shines with spiritual light

truly convinced (about the truth of Islām)

one who is just and fair (pl: muqsitīn)

one who performs salāh (regular obligatory prayer) behind an imām (prayer leader) (syn: ma’mūm)

guardian, patron, one's shaykh, spiritual guide

one who is sought after, refers to one’s shaykh

vigilance; the spiritual station of vigilance, attained with the awareness that Allāh sees one in worship; the permanence of a person’s knowledge that Allāh sees him in all his conditions; vigilant awareness to make sure everything one does is right and proper

seeker, spiritual seeker, a spiritual disciple who seeks guidance on the Islamic spiritual path from a shaykh (spiritual master)

one who guides or directs, spiritual guide, enlightener, one’s shaykh

one who is contented, satisfied with the Decree of Allāh, a title of Sayyidinā ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib Rady Allāhu ‘Anhu

apostate. An apostate is a traitor and in Islām, the punishment for treachery is death

manliness, chivalry, generosity, moral goodness (syn: murū’a)

helping others

Musabbib al-asbāb
The Causer of all causes (an attribute of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā)

one who causes (to happen)

a religious poem in which each stanza consists of six verses

handshake, which is a Sunnah (Prophetic tradition)

a place of prayer other than a masjid; for example, a room set aside for prayer at home or in the workplace

one who performs the salāh (regular prayer)

a Hadīth or Saying of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, with a “uniformly-linked” chain of transmission, one in which all the reporters use the same mode of transmission while narrating the Hadīth

a collection of Hadīth or Sayings of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, arranged in topical chapters. Examples: al-Jāmi‘ us-Sahīh of Imām al-Bukhārī Rahmatullāhi alayh and al-Jāmi‘ us-Sahīh of Imām Muslim Rahmatullāhi alayh

a collection of Hadīth or Sayings of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, which gives the Sayings narrated by each Companion (Sahābī) separately. For example, the Musnad of Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal Rahmatullāhi alayh

a collection of Sayings of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, in which the compiler adopts the criteria for compilation set by a previous authentic compiler, and collects more Sayings or traditions which fulfil those criteria. Example: the Mustadrak of Imām Hākim Abū AbdAllāh al-Nisābūrī, Rahmatullāhi alayh conforms to the conditions set by Imām al-Bukhārī and Imām Muslim

a collection of Sayings of Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam, in which a later compiler collects fresh chains of transmission for his Sayings already collected by previous compilers

continuous, a Hadīth (Saying) of Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam with a continuous chain of narrators, reported by a large number of people and so considered very reliable

Muttafaqun ‘alayh
a Hadīth agreed upon as authentic by both Imām al-Bukhārī, Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh and Imām Muslim, Rahmatullāhi ‘alayh, and included in both Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Sahīh Muslim

“continuous”, a Hadīth which has an uninterrupted chain of transmission going back to Prophet Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam or to a Sahābī (Companion)

a copy of the Glorious Qur’ān (pl: masāhif)

witnessing, the spiritual station of contemplative spiritual vision, attained when one worships Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā as if actually beholding Him (an ta‘budAllāha ka-annaka tarāhu)

partnership. Partners have to work on the basis of qist (justice) and ihsān (moral excellence). Those who set up exploitative relationships with their partners, or cheat their partners should beware of Allāh’s punishment on the Day of Judgment

consultation. To consult others is a Prophetic tradition

difficult. Some things may be difficult but we should try our best and leave the outcome to Allāh. He is the Remover of all difficulties and the Opener of all the doors of ease

idolater, polytheist (pl: mushrikūn, mushrikīn)

one who yearns (pl: mushtāqūn, mushtāqīn)

affliction, calamity. Calamities can be averted by giving sadaqa (charity), and by making du‘ā (supplication to Allāh)

one who puts things right, peacemaker, reconciler (pl: muslihūn, muslihīn)

one who accepts the religion of Islām by believing in and testifying to the declaration:
lā ilāha Illallāh Muhammad u’r Rasūlullāh
None is worthy of worship except Allāh,
Muhammad is the Prophetic Messenger of Allāh.
Muslims are united over all the major aspects of the religion of Islām and most importantly over all the pillars of the Muslim faith and practice, especially in the belief in One God, Allāh; in the belief in all the Prophets and Books sent by Allāh; in following the Final Prophet Sayyidinā Muhammad Sallallāhu alayhi wa Sallam; in following the Final and Complete Revelation, the Holy Qur’ān; and in having one qibla (the direction of prayer) which is the Ka‘ba in Makka. Al-Hamdu Lillāh (all Praise is for Allāh!) (pl: muslimūn, muslimīn; f: muslimah, f. pl: muslimāt)

a religious act, the performance of which merits heavenly reward but the omission of which is not punished in the Hereafter; desirable Sunnah, non-obligatory good deed (syn: mandūb)

those who seek forgiveness from Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā

temporary marriage. This was prohibited by Prophet Muhammad Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa Sallam

trustworthy, reliable, valid

one who gives short measure or weight, cheats in business (pl: mutaffifīn)

speaker; a theologian, one who studies religious beliefs

a pilgrim performing Hajj Tamattu‘, that is Hajj preceded by ‘Umra

a person responsible for the administration, upkeep, and the day to day functioning of a religious institution like a masjid

one who practices pious restraint (pl: mutawarri‘ūn)

those who withdrew from the main body of Muslims (a deviant sect in Islām, now extinct)

one who is obedient to the Commands of Allāh Subhānahū wa Ta‘ālā (pl: mutī‘īn)

emancipator, liberator (of slaves)

one who is at peace, calm, tranquil, serene

pious, God-fearing, one who is in reverential awe of Allāh (pl: muttaqūn, muttaqīn)

a believer in the unity of God; a believer in one God, a believer in Allāh (pl: muwahhidūn, muwahhidīn)

a valley between ‘Arafa and Mina where the Muslim Pilgrims on Hajj spend the night between the ninth and tenth of Dhu’l Hijja. There, they perform the Maghrib and ‘Ishā prayers together


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